What is diabetes?
A metabolic condition in which blood glucose levels are not regulated because of deficient insulin production or inability of the insulin produced to work efficiently, Refers to diabetes.
Types of diabetes-
Type 1 : Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)- the cells that produce insulin are destroyed thus lifelong treatment with insulin is required. It is auto-immune in nature.
Type 2- Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM- ) when the body either stops producing enough insulin or becomes resistant to the effect of insulin produced. 90% cases re type2.
Exercise and diabetes-
Exercise is essential for blood glucose management and overall health for diabetes management. It is advisable to do 30 to 60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity along with resistance exercise twice a week.
Benefits of physical activity-
- reduces cardiovascular risk and mortality
- assists with weight management
- improves glycemic control.
- minimum of 150 min of moderate-intensity or
- 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week.
- for weight loss – 200–300 min per week.
- aerobic exercise at moderate intensity 3 or more days per week.
- Perform a combination of aerobic and muscle strengthening training.
- For sedentary individuals – it is essential to get a clearance from their health care provider prior to beginning an exercise program
Key points to note-
- if blood glucose is 16.7 mml/L during physical activity, hydration is important. However if constantly elevated, patients should consult with their health care provider.
- For individuals with peripheral neuropathy, Careful attention to appropriate foot wear and any signs of foot damage is essential.
- If extreme fatigue occurs, lasting for quite a few minutes, report to your healthcare provider.
- Autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of silent heart attack and hypotension.
- Choosing appropriate time of day to exercise to adapt with temperatures.
- Regular monitoring of blood glucose concentrations.
- Dangerous to commence exercise when blood glucose.
- Site of insulin injection – Insulin absorption is increased in exercising muscles, the abdomen is usually the preferred site for insulin injection prior to exercising.