Do you have flat foot? Read here-


Flat foot is the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. It is also called as pes planus.

At birth we all have flat feet, arches develop around 3 years of age.

 Flat feet is of two forms; flexible and rigid. When the arch is intact with elevation of the help and non-bearing but disappears on full standing, it is termed flexible flat foot while rigid flat foot is when the arch is not present in both of these activities,


  • Congenital deformity
  • ligamentous laxity
  • presence of the accessory navicular bone
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • foot and ankle injuries
  • genetic malformations
  • overuse causing arch weakness
  • pregnancy


Bones involved in medial arch- calcaneus, navicular, talus, first three cuneiforms, and the first three metatarsals

Supportive structures of arch- posterior tibial tendon, plantar ligament, deltoid ligament, flexor hallucis muscles

Dysfunction, overuse, excess tension of above structures cause acquired flat foot.

Characteristics/Clinical Presentation-

  • Pain along the course of the posterior tibial tendon
  • May have inverted ankles
  • Possible oedema
  • Stiffness
  • Contracture of muscles at the lateral compartment
  • Uneven distribution of body weight and improper weight bearing

Physical Therapy Management-

Rehab helps minimize pain, increase foot flexibility, strengthen muscles.

Pain management includes rest, activity modification, icing, electric agents.

Exercise rehab- it includes stretching and strenghtenin exercise, training of gait, proper weight bearing, training balance exercises, and training proprioception.

  • Counselling – wear proper footwear, suggestions for motion control shoes, use of insoles or orthotics and braces are also needed.
  • Obese and overweight individuals-  encouragement of weight loss through exercise and dieting

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