Pneumonia- One of the increasing causes of fatality (Part2)

Stages of pneumonia-

The stages of pneumonia are as follows-

Consolidation- in the first 24 hours, neutrophils, lymphocytes and also fibrin replace the alveoli causing them to become congested. The infection thus rapidly spreads and symptoms of coughing and deep breathing occur.

Red Hepatization- after 3 days of consolidation, The lungs become hyperaemic. Thus presence of many erythrocytes, neutrophils, desquamated epithelial cells, and fibrin within alveoli is noted.

Grey Hepatization- this Occurs 2-3 days after Red Hepatization. The lung appears “grey-brown to yellow because of fibrinopurulent exudates. This is thus an avascular stage.

Resolution- The final stage in which there is resorption and thus restoration of the pulmonary tissues.

Role of physiotherapy

Physiotherapy helps in aiding the symptoms of pneumonia. Common goals include mobilising secretions, increasing air entry, relieving dyspnea, and also improving mobility of patients.

Respiratory physiotherapy is an adjunct commonly used to ease symptoms of pneumonia. Common interventions include the following-

  • Modified postural drainage – this allows gravity to drain secretions from specific segments of the lungs
  • Mobilisation of lung secretions
  • Coughing and huffing exercises
  • humidification
  • Breathing exercises
  • Mobilization of the patient

 Pneumonia in children-

Those children whose immune systems are compromised are at higher risk of developing pneumonia. A child’s immune system may be weakened by malnutrition or due to Pre-existing illnesses, such as symptomatic HIV infections and measles.

Other environmental factors-
  • indoor air pollution (cooking and heating with biomass)
  • living in crowded homes
  • parental smoking

Signs and Symptoms in Children

  • rapid breathing
  • fever
  • abdominal pain or vomiting.
  • Viral symptoms may appear gradually and less severe than bacterial pneumonia.
  • Increased breath rate: > 60 breaths/min ( newborns up to 2 months)
  • > 50 breaths/min ( 2 months to 12 months)
  • > 40 breaths/min ( child older than 1 year)


  • Vaccines are usually administered to prevent infection by viruses and bacteria.
  •  immunisation against Haemophilus Influenzae and Pertussis at the age of 2 months of age.

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