Read about prostate cancer-


Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men after skin cancer. It affects the prostate gland and is also the second leading cancer-related cause of death in men.

Clinical Presentation

Clinical signs are as follows-

  • Urinary retention
  • Presence of other urinary complaints                           
  • Low back pain
  • perineal pain
  • Hematuria
  • Blood in semen
  • Sexual dysfunction

Screening test –

Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Test:

  • A blood test used to test for elevated levels of PSA.
  • If prostate cancer develops the PSA levels will thus typically increase past 4 ng/mL of blood.

             -PSA level between 4 and 10: 25% chance

             -PSA greater than 10: over 50% chance

  • No PSA level-  signifies absence of prostate cancer



  • a biopsy of the prostate gland for individuals who have elevated PSA levels.


Stage I: it has not yet spread to other areas.

II: Cancer discovered during a biopsy, not yet spread.

Stage III: Cancer has spread to nearby tissue 

IV: spread to lymph nodes or to other parts of the body 

Non Modifiable Risk Factors

  • Advancing Age- 65 years or older
  • Family History- positive family history
  • Genetic variations
  • Viruses and hormones

Modifiable Risk Factors

  • Diet- A diet of meat, and high-fat dairy products- increased risk in developing prostate cancer.
  • Occupational exposure- Such as chemicals and other metals
  • Multiple sex partners
  • Low levels of vitamins

Management options-

Definitive Treatments include:

  • Prostatectomy: removal of the prostate gland.
  • Radiation therapy: Use of high-energy radiation to try to kill the cancer causing cells.
  • Hormone therapy: Aims to block the cancer cells from growing
  • Cryotherapy: Placement of a probe near the cancer cells to kill them by freezing them.
  • Chemotherapy: Use of drugs to kill or reduce the size of the cancer cells. It can be given orally/ IV

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