Chronic kidney disease- CKD:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD):

CKD leads to A progressive loss of glomerular function. It is present when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. This should be present for three consecutive months or greater. It may require dialysis.

Basic kidney Functions

  •  Filteration of the blood products
  • Regulation of blood pressure
  • Regulates body fluid volume
  • Production of rbc

Risk Factors for CKD-

  • Older age
  • More in males
  • Presence of systemic hypertension, obesity, smoking proteinuria, dyslipidemia, etc


  • stage 1: normal or elevated GFR
  • 2: mild reduction in GFR
  • 3: moderate reduction in GFR
  • 4: severe reduction in GFR
  • 5: dialysis/ end-stage kidney disease

Clinical Presentation-

  • cola coloured urine (due to RBC casts)
  • nausea, vomiting, weight loss
  • muscle loss/ sarcopenia

Acute Renal Failure (ARF)

the glomerular filtration declines abruptly (hours to days) and is usually reversible. AKI diagnosis is done with any one of the following:

 (1) creatinine more than 0.3 mg/dL in 48 hours

 (2) creatinine increase to 1.5 times of baseline value within last 7 days,

 (3) urine volume <0.5 mL/kg/hour for 6 hours.

Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)

CRF represents a persistent impairment of kidney function. There is an abnormally elevated serum creatinine for more than 3 months.It often involves a progressive loss of kidney function. Crf is a condition usually necessitating renal replacement therapy.


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