What is BLS ?
Basic Life Support (BLS) is performed to support the patients respiration as well as circulation through CPR until advanced life support arrives.
BLS : Key elements-
- Recognising cardiac arrest
- Call for assistance
- Initiate CPR
- Advanced life support and post cardiac arrest care.
CPR is a lifesaving technique which aims to keep blood and oxygen flowing through the body when a person’s breathing and heart have stopped. Cardiac arrest may occur in unexpected places where medical facilities may not be available, hence a CPR must be performed. It helps enhance patients survival possibilities and may help save life.
The steps involved in CPR are known as ABCD
A – Airway B – Breathing C – Circulation D – Defibrillator
There are 2 types of CPR-
- Hands-only CPR. Involves pushing on the chest in a rapid motion ie chest compressions.
- Traditional CPR – this alternates chest compressions with mouth-to-mouth breaths.
Compressions only CPR- Commenced when a victim is unresponsive and not breathing normally.
- 100 – 120 compressions per minute (all ages)
- Push down on the sternum upto 1/3 of the depth
- Push in a regular rhythm.
- complete recoil of chest should occur between each compression
- Frequent rotation of personnel should be taken
- Avoid compression below lower limits of sternum
- After each 30 compressions there is an interruption in chest compressions for two rescue breaths (optional).
Combine Rescue Breathing With Chest Compressions-
- Perform chest compression
- Checking the area for safety.
- place the person on a firm, flat surface.
- perform 30 chest compressions.
- Open the airway: Put the palm of your hand on the person’s forehead and tilt your head back.
- Gently lift their chin forward with your other hand.
- With the airway open, pinch the nostrils shut, and cover the person’s mouth.
- Give two rescue breaths, each lasting about 1 second.
- Watch for their chest to rise with each breath. If it doesn’t, reposition the face mask and try again.
Alternate rescue breathing with chest compressions: Continue alternating 30 compressions with two rescue breaths until the person begins to breathe or until medical help arrives.
If the person begins to breathe, have him or her lie on their side quietly until medical assistance arrives.
People with no prior training, or who have received training many years ago, or are trained but not confident should use hands-only CPR.
People with training in traditional CPR, and who are comfortable with the method, can use traditional.